Attention: 10 PEOPLE most susceptible to COVID-19

Humanity is struggling to cope with the terrible devastation of the Covid-19 epidemic. The number of infected people is continuously increasing and there is no sign of stopping. There is currently no medicine to treat the Covid-19 virus, the best way to avoid their attack is to always know how to protect yourself. Learn more about the group of people who are susceptible to Covid-19 and then be more proactive in preventing the disease. You can also refer to the ways to improve health here.

1. Elder people

You may not know, the likelihood of contracting the Covid-19 virus increases with age. The virus tends to cause more serious complications in middle-aged and older people.

The risk of developing dangerous symptoms increases with age, with people aged 65 and older generally having the highest risk of severe symptoms.

The aging of the body in the elderly takes place clearly, from the skeletal system to the important organs in the functioning apparatus such as the heart, lungs, vascular system.

Because of this, the elderly's body's ability to adapt to adverse external influences such as weather and environment increases, increasing the risk of infectious diseases, especially respiratory diseases. steam.

There are four reasons why the elderly are more susceptible to and die from Covid-19.

First, the immune system function in the elderly is impaired. With age, the organs in the body have degeneration and decline in function, making the body's immune system weaker.

The protective function of the immune system decreases, making it difficult for older people to fight the invasion of viruses and bacteria that attack the body.

Second, the inflammatory response in the elderly is beyond normal. In the elderly, high levels of inflammation can damage the lungs, kidneys, and affect many other organs in the body.

Third, the elderly are more prone to complications. Pre-existing underlying medical conditions in the elderly are unavoidable. The entry of viruses that cause respiratory infections can cause more serious complications in heart, kidney or liver disease. In severe cases, the patient must be mechanically ventilated, ECMO (artificial cardiopulmonary) intervention, even leading to death.

Fourth, lung function decreases with age. Because this makes ventilation less effective, if there is more advanced pneumonia, respiratory failure is likely to develop.

However, this does not mean that the Covid-19 virus does not affect young people. Acute pneumonia caused by a new strain of coronavirus is almost a completely new disease for the world epidemiology.

The comprehensive study of the impact of Covid-19 on children has suggested that the low number of Covid-19 infections in children may be because children are less likely to be exposed in the first place. Along with that, because the child's body has a special response to the virus, it can be understood as the child's innate immune system.

In addition, because children are not self-aware that washing hands, covering mouth or touching others or similar actions can spread the virus.

Therefore, we should not be subjective and comfortable letting children go out without protective measures. Prevention is necessary, everyone must be prevented and take the same precautions.

2. People with chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease is an extremely dangerous disease. People with this disease at any stage are at increased risk of worsening and dying if they contract Covid-19. The severity of the disease becomes even higher for people on dialysis.

Studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 can affect kidney function during the course of the disease, even after the patient has recovered. Some people with severe Covid-19 show signs of kidney damage, even if they had no previous kidney problems.

The impact of the Covid-19 virus on the kidneys is still unclear, but researchers have pointed out some dangerous problems they cause as follows:

- Attacks on kidney cells
- Too little oxygen in the blood causes the kidneys to malfunction
- The immune system's backlash to the new coronavirus can destroy kidney tissue
- Causes blood clots to block the kidneys.

3. People with chronic lung disease

Chronic lung disease including COPD (chronic pulmonary embolism), asthma (moderate to severe), interstitial lung disease, cystic fibrosis, and pulmonary hypertension

People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at high risk for COVID-19 and can lead to mild to severe respiratory complications.

Accordingly, people infected with SARS-CoV-2 with COPD are at risk of serious infections, because the virus affects the respiratory system, damages the lungs and makes it harder for the lungs to fight infections. At the same time, the risk can vary according to the type of respiratory illness:

- COPD and interstitial lung disease are characterized by fibrosis and loss of elasticity of the lungs. Since then, the patient's ability to breathe on their own if infected with Covid-19 is reduced.
- Asthma does not cause fibrosis, but infection with Covid-19 can cause severe attack and even death, especially in people with poorly controlled asthma;
- Bronchiectasis causes accumulation of excess mucus. If pneumonia develops due to Covid-19, the airway obstruction can be life-threatening.

4. People with liver disease

People with chronic liver disease, especially cirrhosis (scarring in the liver), have a very high risk of contracting Covid-19. Not only that, the disease tends to be severe, quickly mutating into respiratory failure due to poor resistance to the attack of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in these subjects.

This virus can complicate existing liver disease in some people, causing elevations of liver enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). That's why the disease is worse. Another concern is that antibiotics, antiviral drugs and steroids used to treat Covid-19 also damage liver cells.

5. People with heart failure

People with cardiovascular disease are targeted by Covid-19. According to WHO statistics, the risk of death from Covid-19 in people with cardiovascular disease is the highest and 10 times higher than the general population.

The explanation for this is as follows, when the SARS-CoV-2 virus enters the body, it will trigger an underlying heart disease and cause a severe inflammatory response in the blood vessels and heart muscle leading to heart attack, arrhythmia. , acute coronary syndrome, acute heart failure.

In addition, the heart function has weakened, making the patient's shortness of breath and fatigue even more serious. SARS-CoV-2 causes acute pneumonia syndrome, making them not strong enough to fight the disease. If infected with a virus, the disease will progress more complicated, the ability to recover is also more difficult than the average person.

6. People with weakened immune system

People with weak immune systems are not as resistant to the attack of Covid-19 as others. Cases that fall under this category include:

- People with HIV
- Patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer
- Organ transplant person
- People with primary immunodeficiency

These subjects do not have the necessary immune responses to fight the entry of SARS-CoV-2 in the early stages. The ability to create antibodies from that is also limited, the immune system may not be able to eliminate the virus if it is unfortunately infected.

When the immune system is activated, it releases chemicals called cytokines. Cytokines can be beneficial for the body, but they can also cause tissue damage when overused. So, an overactive immune system can also cause lung damage and pneumonia in patients with Covid-19.

7. People with nervous disorders

Certain neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's or motor neurone disorders may increase the severity of Covid-19, by easily disrupting the swallowing reflex, reducing the cough or cause respiratory failure.

At the same time, many drugs used to treat nervous disorders and myasthenia gravis actively suppress the immune system, making it easier for Covid-19 symptoms to become more severe.

8. People who are obese

Many investigations have shown that obese people are twice as likely to be hospitalized for Covid-19 than patients of normal weight. Not only that, but this group of people is twice as likely to need acute care and three times more likely to be in the intensive care unit.

In addition, obese people have higher rates of obstructive sleep apnea, asthma problems, reflux and restricted lungs, etc., which can affect the respiratory system, due to severe infections caused by Coronavirus.

9. Pregnant women

Pregnant women are much more susceptible to respiratory infections than the general population. This is because pregnancy changes the immune system and impacts the lungs and heart. Therefore, pregnant women are at high risk of contracting Covid-19 and experiencing dangerous complications, such as premature birth.

When pregnant women get the disease, it will leave especially serious consequences. The level of danger of this disease to pregnant women is similar to the level of MERS epidemic in 2014.

10. People with diabetes

Diabetes (diabetes) is a health disorder that compromises the immune system, especially in type 2, making people more susceptible to Covid-19 if exposed to risk factors. One of the reasons given is that the virus can thrive in the body when there is high blood sugar.

Prolonged hyperglycemia can lead to acidosis, in which acids called ketones reduce the production of immune cells, including T lymphocytes and neutrophils. And the results could increase your chances of being infected with Covid-19. In addition, a person with diabetes, when infected with a virus, can lead to unpredictable complications.

People with disorders related to high blood sugar, it is important to monitor blood sugar regularly, manage blood sugar, avoid stress... and take other precautions to help prevent Covid- 19.
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